Thursday, 26 May 2016

New York City Politics

''Politics becomes a joke rather than a reality.''

Giuliani Attacks Sharpton As Unqualified to Be Mayor

Interjecting himself further into the Democratic mayoral runoff yesterday, Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani said the Rev. Al Sharpton was unqualified to be mayor, challenged the Manhattan Borough President, Ruth W. Messinger, to do the same and prepared to release another television advertisement trumpeting his support among Democrats. 

While trying to drive a wedge between the two remaining Democratic contenders and pin Ms. Messinger in a position of upsetting one Democratic constituency or another, the Mayor highlighted the discomfort some Democratic Party leaders have expressed toward Mr. Sharpton.

Speaking of Mr. Sharpton after an appearance at a Sunset Park, Brooklyn, firehouse, Mayor Giuliani said: ''I think he's unqualified to be mayor. I'm not afraid to say that. I think Ruth Messinger is afraid to say that.''

The Mayor said Mr. Sharpton lacked the experience needed for the job. ''There has to be a background of having worked,'' he said, ''having had a job, having distinguished yourself at things before you come to the position of being mayor.'' Otherwise, Mr. Giuliani added, ''Politics becomes a joke rather than a reality.''

Word of the Mayor's attack sent ripples throughout a campaign day otherwise filled with routine politicking by the two Democrats.

Ms. Messinger spent much of the day in Queens, attending a Democratic club breakfast at the Oakland Jewish Center and greeting voters at a Hispanic cultural parade in Jackson Heights. After receiving a rousing reception from more than 800 worshipers at a church in East New York, Brooklyn, Mr. Sharpton visited a social service center in the Bronx.

Ms. Messinger, who is generally considered the favorite in the Sept. 23 runoff after gaining a plurality in the first round of primary voting, said Mayor Giuliani's accusations were simply an attempt to divert attention from accusations that his aides had accepted more than $300,000 in illegal donations.

She refused to agree that Mr. Sharpton was unqualified to be mayor, and reiterated her position that she would support the winner of the Democratic primary.

But choosing her words carefully, she said, ''I have publicly disagreed with Al Sharpton in the debates on issues of policy.'' She added, ''I have never been afraid to say what it is I think, and I believe Rudy Giuliani knows that.''

Democratic campaign aides have said Ms. Messinger faces a challenge in distinguishing herself from Mr. Sharpton without alienating his base among black voters, a vital Democratic constituency that could prove important in the general election.

Hearing of Mayor Giuliani's attack while leaving St. Paul Community Baptist Church in East New York, Mr. Sharpton unleashed his own barrage against the Republican incumbent. ''Clearly the Mayor is trying to use code words, hoping to get a white backlash vote to stop me in the runoff,'' he said. ''The code word was qualifications. Everybody darker than Liz Taylor knows what that code word means.''

Mr. Sharpton also faulted the Mayor on the campaign finance issue and for soliciting support from departing Representative Floyd H. Flake, a Queens Democrat and black minister who Mr. Sharpton noted had been investigated but cleared several years ago by Federal investigators following reports suggesting he had embezzled money from a church-sponsored housing project. Mr. Flake is leaving Congress in October.

A second senior Queens Democrat, Alan G. Hevesi, the City Comptroller, was also drawn into the parrying between Mayor Giuliani and the two Democratic contenders yesterday.

Mayor Giuliani compared Mr. Hevesi's declaration that he could not support Mr. Sharpton in the general election with Ms. Messinger's pledge to support him if she loses the Sept. 23 vote.

''I respect what the Comptroller did yesterday because he's talking like a real person, not like a politician,'' the Mayor said. ''Ruth Messinger doesn't have the independence, I imagine, to say what she really thinks.''

The Giuliani campaign also prepared to release an advertisement today showing about 100 Democratic officials, lobbyists and employees under a huge sign that said ''Democrats for Giuliani,'' another indication of the Mayor's determination to snare the votes of Democrats unhappy with their own party's choices.

Photos: Campaigning for the Democratic mayoral nomination, the Rev. Al Sharpton, left (Chester Higgins Jr./The New York Times), was endorsed by the entertainers James Brown, center, and Isaac Hayes in Central Park yesterday. Ruth W. Messinger, in photo at right (Steve Berman for The New York Times), met dancers from a Hispanic cultural parade in Jackson Heights, Queens.

Friday, 20 May 2016

Wearing Sunglasses Indoors


Maintain Eye Contact and Try to Establish Empathy Based on Mutual Trust

Just try to act NATURAL.

DO NOT BEHAVE AS THOUGH YOU MIGHT BE GUILTY OF SOMETHING !!

Look the World square in the eye, and whatever you do, try not to flinch.



Works every time.

In any situation.



The wearing of dark eyeglasses or shades in contemporary Western esotericism represents a direct and deliberate inversion of the Masonic hoodwink, or blindfold - rather than being in a room full of strangers in an unfamiliar place, none of whom or which you are able to see, whilst they are all able to see you, you carry around with you your own personal duckblind, looking out at a world unable to see you or your true self from behind it.

As such, it provides a further connection back to legends speaking of a cap or cape of invisibility, often tracing back directly in the oldest tales both to Hermes, the Scribe and first magician of the gods, or the goddess Pallas Athena, the Spear-Shaker, and her helmet of invisibility.

The Hoodwink

"A symbol of the secrecy, silence, and darkness in which the mysteries of our art should be preserved from the unhallowed gaze of the profane. 

It has been supposed to have a symbolic reference to the passage in Saint John's Gospel (I, 5), "And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not." 

But it is more certain that there is in the hoodwink a representation of the mystical darkness which always preceded the rites of the ancient initiations."

Source:  Mackey's Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry,1929, Volume 1, Page 464


KNOW YOUR DOPE FIEND. YOUR LIFE MAY DEPEND ON IT! 

You will not be able to see his eyes because of Tea-Shades, but his knuckles will be white from inner tension and his pants will be crusted with semen from constantly jacking off when he can't find a rape victim. 

He will stagger and babble when questioned. He will not respect your badge. 

The Dope Fiend fears nothing. He will attack, for no reason, with every weapon at his command-including yours. 

BEWARE. Any officer apprehending a suspected marijuana addict should use all necessary force immediately. 

One stitch in time (on him), will usually save 9mm., on you. 

Good luck. 

- The Chief.


Body Language

Before you even open your mouth to answer a question you will already be communicating with the Officer interviewing you simply by the signals you give through your body language. While the Army Officers interviewing you are unlikely to have received any special training in body language interpretation techniques, they will have conducted hundreds of interviews prior to yours and will have developed an ability to recognise certain basic signals.

Ensure that you make eye contact with the person interviewing when answering questions. I am not suggesting that you stare intently into their eyes without breaking contact (that would be very odd), but your ability to maintain eye contact can be useful indicators of your confidence and powers of communication.

Avoid excessive fidgeting during the conversation. Again this can be very distracting and is a clear indication of discomfort and nerves. The person interviewing you will understand that you are likely to be nervous and will do their best to put you at ease.

An in depth analysis of how to understand and control the signals you send through your body language is beyond the scope of this site, however if you are interested in learning more about this I would recommend one of the following books that I found extremely useful when going through the selection process myself and have called upon many times during my career - as an Officer you will spend a lot of time interviewing your soldiers. All of these are readily available from Amazon.

The Shellfish Thing

Hexaplex trunculus is a medium-sized species of sea snail was found on the north part of Israeli coastal plain near Tel Shikmona

Leviticus 11:9-12

King James Version (KJV)

These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:
11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.


A guide from the Ptil Tekhelet Foundation shows how a piece of wool, dipped into the solution for the Hexaplex (Murex) trunculus based dye, turns into leek-like green in sunlight, and eventually into (dark) blue with a purple hue.


Numbers 15 :

37 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,

38 Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue:

39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the Lord, and do them ; and that ye seek not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go a whoring:

40 That ye may remember, and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God.

41 I am the Lord your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I am the Lord your God.

Tzitzit (tassel) with blue thread produced from Hexaplex (Murex) trunculus


Structural formula of Hexaplex (Murex) spp. based blue, the tekhelet indigo 
(note the two bromides: in marine environments, 
sodium bromide is abundant, 
not so in terrestrial ones)

 Tekhelet (Hebrew: תכלת təḵêleṯ, "blue-violet", or "blue", or "turquoise" (alternate spellings include tekheleth, t'chelet, techelet and techeiles) is a blue dye mentioned 49 times in the Hebrew Bible/Tanakh. It was used in the clothing of the High Priest, the tapestries in the Tabernacle, and the tassels (Hebrew: ציצית, Tzitzit (or Ṣiṣiyot) [tsiˈtsit], pl. Tzitziyot or Ṣiṣiyot) affixed to the corners of one's four-cornered garment, such as the Tallit (garment worn during prayer, usually).

According to the Talmud, the dye of Tekhelet was produced from a marine creature known as the Ḥillazon (also spelled Chilazon). According to the Tosefta (Men. 9:6), the Ḥillazon is the exclusive source of the dye.

After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans, the sole use of the Tekhelet dye was in Tzitzit. A set of Tzitzit consists of four tassels, some of their strands being Tekhelet, which Rashi describes as green as “poireau,” the French word for leek, transliterated into Hebrew. There are three opinions in Rabbinic literature as to how many are to be blue: 2 strings; 1 string; 1 half string. These strands are then threaded and hang down, appearing to be eight. The four strands are passed through a hole 25 to 50 mm away from the corners of the four-cornered cloth.



Making Sense of Kosher Laws - Biblical Archaeology Society

Biblical Archaeology Society Staff
This Bible History Daily feature was originally published in July 2012. It has been updated.—Ed.




The origins of Jewish dietary or kosher laws (kashrut) have long been the subject of scholarly research and debate. Regardless of their origins, however, these age-old laws continue to have a significant impact on the way many observant Jews go about their daily lives. One of the more well-known restrictions is the injunction against mixing meat with dairy products. Not only do most Jews who observe kashrut avoid eating any meat and milk products together, many also wait a certain amount of time—30 minutes to a few hours—between eating meat and dairy. Everything the foods touch must be kept completely separate. A fully kosher household, for example, might have two or more different sets of flatware, tableware and cooking ware for making and serving meat dishes separate from dairy-based dishes. Some families even use two different dishwashers in order to maintain the separation. Outside the house, some Jews keep kosher by eating only at kosher restaurants while others have no problem eating non-kosher foods, so long as they maintain a kosher home.
But what are some of the other laws of kashrut, and how are they to be explained? Many of the dietary restrictions outlined in Deuteronomy and Leviticus prohibit the consumption of certain “unclean” animals that either don’t chew their cud or don’t have cloven hooves, such as pigs, camels and rabbits. Likewise, while the Hebrew Bible permits the eating of fish with fins and scales, shellfish like lobsters and crabs are an abomination. Why were such seemingly innocuous physiological traits so objectionable to the early Israelites?
One possible reason may be that the Israelites wanted some way to distinguish themselves from their non-Hebrew neighbors. Archaeological excavations of Iron Age I sites in Israel have shown that while pigs were a popular part of the Philistine diet, they were entirely absent from the herd-based economy of the Israelites. According to Ronald Hendel, such culinary distinctions soon became codified markers of cultural identity, whereby “the Philistine treat became an Israelite taboo.”
*
Perhaps similar efforts to affirm Israel’s uniqueness lay at the heart of other animal prohibitions.
But according to kashrut, even permissible animals have to be prepared in a certain way in order to remain kosher. As explained in Deuteronomy 12:23-24, for example, the blood of a slaughtered animal cannot be ingested, for “the blood is the life, and you shall not eat the life with the flesh.” The Israelites, like many ancient peoples, believed that an animal’s blood carried the soul of the animal and therefore should not be consumed.** Thus, before a piece of meat could be cooked, it had to be fully drained of its blood. Though not discussed in the Bible, traditional kosher methods for doing this include broiling the meat or a combination of soaking and salting.
Kosher law also forbids the consumption of wine that has been made, bottled or handled by non-Jews. Although this prohibition does not appear in the Hebrew Bible, it seems to have been followed as early as the second century A.D. In antiquity, wine was often used in libation rituals to various deities; for Jews this meant that any “pagan” wine could potentially have been made or used as a sacrifice to a foreign god. Thus, in order to avoid coming into contact with contaminated wine, Jews began making and bottling their own wine in accordance with Jewish law.

Notes

*Ronald S. Hendel, “Of Sacred Leopards and Abominable Pigs,” Bible Review, October 2000.
**Bryan Bibb, “What’s a Pleasing Sacrifice?” Bible Review, October 2004.

Purple

“We started talking Red and Blue,” 
Prince said. 

"So here’s how it is: you’ve got the Republicans, and basically they want to live according to this.” 

He pointed to a Bible. 


And then on the opposite end of the spectrum you’ve got blue, you’ve got the Democrats, and they’re, like, 
‘You can do whatever you want.’ 
Gay marriage, whatever. 

But neither of them is right.”







Purple does not exist in nature - it is the product of mixing together (alchemically), 
The Red and The Blue :

Communism + Capitalism

Republican + Democrat

Man + Woman

= PURPLE

“Purple exceeds all colors in costliness and superiority of its delightful effect. It is obtained from a marine shellfish. …It has not the same shade in all the places where it is found, but is naturally qualified by the course of the sun”.

- Vitruvius 

Vitruvian Man

"The most favourable season for taking these [shellfish] is after the rising of the Dog-star, or else before spring; for when they have once discharged their waxy secretion, their juices have no consistency: this, however, is a fact unknown in the dyers' workshops, although it is a point of primary importance. 

After it is taken, the vein [i.e. hypobranchial gland] is extracted, which we have previously spoken of, to which it is requisite to add salt, a sextarius [about 20 fl. oz.] about to every hundred pounds of juice. It is sufficient to leave them to steep for a period of three days, and no more, for the fresher they are, the greater virtue there is in the liquor. 

It is then set to boil in vessels of tin [or lead], and every hundred amphoræ ought to be boiled down to five hundred pounds of dye, by the application of a moderate heat; for which purpose the vessel is placed at the end of a long funnel, which communicates with the furnace; while thus boiling, the liquor is skimmed from time to time, and with it the flesh, which necessarily adheres to the veins. 

About the tenth day, generally, the whole contents of the cauldron are in a liquefied state, upon which a fleece, from which the grease has been cleansed, is plunged into it by way of making trial; but until such time as the colour is found to satisfy the wishes of those preparing it, the liquor is still kept on the boil. 

The tint that inclines to red is looked upon as inferior to that which is of a blackish hue. The wool is left to lie in soak for five hours, and then, after carding it, it is thrown in again, until it has fully imbibed the colour.


Pliny The Elder




"Honorary Badges of distinction are to be conferred on the veteran Non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the army who have served more than three years with bravery, fidelity and good conduct; for this purpose a narrow piece of white cloath [sic] of an angular form is to be fixed to the left arm on the uniform Coat. Non commissioned officers and soldiers who have served with equal reputation more than six years are to be distinguished by two pieces of cloth set in parellel [sic] to each other in a simular [sic] form; should any who are not entitled to these honors have the insolence to assume the badges of them they shall be severely punished. On the other hand it is expected those gallant men who are thus designated will on all occasions be treated with particular confidence and consideration. "

George Washington's General Orders of August 7, 1782






Purple doesn't actually exist.

It's not in between Blue and Indigo, and it isn't between Indigo and Violet.


The Torah is written in code - several codes.

Every letter in Hebrew corresponds to a number, they didn't (and don't) have distinct systems of alphanumeric notation - that's in fact where the "Minus Six Million" messianic prophecy comes from.

The Hebrew characters for "Man" ("Adam") and "Woman" carry the numerical value of 1 and 2 respectively, while the character for "Child" corresponds to 3.

Purple does not exist in nature.

The only way to create Purple is by combining The Red with The Blue.

Does this sound silly? Well, it isn't. Black and White are non-existent colours also.


The Roman Republic first associated Purple with Civic Royalty and high, noble birth. Being able to afford it was sign you were descended from a great line of gods and heroes, going back to Mount Olympus. It was Constantine who first associated it with the High Catholic Clergy.


They were buying it from the Phoenicians, who were they only ones who knew how to extract a pure purple dye (in truly minuscule quantities) from this one specific species of sea snail they cultivated indoors and commercially, just as they did with oysters, muscles and other molloscs.

That snail is uniquely indigenous to those areas of the Mediterranean that were major centres on the Phoenician trade routes, and appears to have been first been introduced and exploited commercially by antedeluvian survivors of The Flood and refugees from Atlantis.


Recently, Prince hosted an executive who works for Philip Anschutz, the Christian businessman whose company owns the Staples Center. “We started talking Red and Blue,” Prince said. 

“People with money—money like that—are not affected by the stock market, and they’re not freaking out over anything. [The Green] They’re just watching. So here’s how it is: you’ve got the Republicans, and basically they want to live according to this.” He pointed to a Bible. “But there’s the problem of interpretation, and you’ve got some churches, some people, basically doing things and saying it comes from here, but it doesn’t. 

And then on the opposite end of the spectrum you’ve got blue, you’ve got the Democrats, and they’re, like, ‘You can do whatever you want.’ Gay marriage, whatever. But neither of them is right.”

When asked about his perspective on social issues—gay marriage, abortion—Prince tapped his Bible and said, “God came to earth and saw people sticking it wherever and doing it with whatever, and he just cleared it all out. 

He was, like, ‘Enough.’




That's why the sky is all Purple in 1999, why the rain is Purple, why Purple is Royal, and seductive and sexual.

Purple does not exist in nature - it is the product of mixing together (alchemically), The Red and The Blue :

Communism + Capitalism

Republican + Democrat

Man + Woman

= PURPLE

Atlantis, the Antediluvian World

by Ignatius Donnelly, [1882], 

at sacred-texts.com


p. 308

CHAPTER III.

THE GODS OF THE PHŒNICIANS ALSO KINGS OF ATLANTIS.

NOT alone were the gods of the Greeks the deified kings of Atlantis, but we find that the mythology of the Phœnicians was drawn from the same source.

For instance, we find in the Phœnician cosmogony that the Titans (Rephaim) derive their origin from the Phœnician gods Agrus and Agrotus. This connects the Phœnicians with that island in the remote west, in the midst of ocean, where, according to the Greeks, the Titans dwelt.

According to Sanchoniathon, Ouranos was the son of Autochthon, and, according to Plato, Autochthon was one of the ten kings of Atlantis. He married his sister Ge. He is the Uranos of the Greeks, who was the son of Gæa (the earth), whom he married. The Phœnicians tell us, "Ouranos had by Ge four sons: Ilus (El), who is called Chronos, and Betylus (Beth-El), and Dagon, which signifies bread-corn, and Atlas (Tammuz?)." Here, again, we have the names of two other kings of Atlantis. These four sons probably represented four races, the offspring of the earth. The Greek Uranos was the father of Chronos, and the ancestor of Atlas. The Phœnician god Ouranos had a great many other wives: his wife Ge was jealous; they quarrelled, and he attempted to kill the children he had by her. This is the legend which the Greeks told of Zeus and Juno. In the Phœnician mythology Chronos raised a rebellion against Ouranos, and, after a great battle, dethroned him. In the Greek legends it is Zeus who attacks and overthrows his father, Chronos. Ouranos had a daughter called Astarte

p. 309

[paragraph continues] (Ashtoreth), another called Rhea. "And Dagon, after he had found out bread-corn and the plough, was called Zeus-Arotrius."

We find also, in the Phœnician legends, mention made of Poseidon, founder and king of Atlantis.

Chronos gave Attica to his daughter Athena, as in the Greek legends. In a time of plague be sacrificed his son to Ouranos, and "circumcised himself, and compelled his allies to do the same thing." It would thus appear that this singular rite, practised as we have seen by the Atlantidæ of the Old and New Worlds, the Egyptians, the Phœnicians, the Hebrews, the Ethiopians, the Mexicans, and the red men of America, dates back, as we might have expected, to Atlantis.

"Chronos visits the different regions of the habitable world."

He gave Egypt as a kingdom to the god Taaut, who had invented the alphabet. The Egyptians called him Thoth, and he was represented among them as "the god of letters, the clerk of the under-world," bearing a tablet, pen, and palm-branch.

This not only connects the Phœnicians with Atlantis, but shows the relations of Egyptian civilization to both Atlantis and the Phœnicians.

There can be no doubt that the royal personages who formed the gods of Greece were also the gods of the Phœnicians. We have seen the Autochthon of Plato reappearing in the Autochthon of the Phœnicians; the Atlas of Plato in the Atlas of the Phœnicians; the Poseidon of Plato in the Poseidon of the Phœnicians; while the kings Mestor and Mneseus of Plato are probably the gods Misor and Amynus of the Phœnicians.

Sanchoniathon tells us, after narrating all the discoveries by which the people advanced to civilization, that the Cabiri set down their records of the past by the command of the god Taaut, "and they delivered them to their successors and to foreigners, of whom one was Isiris (Osiris), the inventor of the three letters, the brother of Chua, who is called the first Phœnician."

p. 310

[paragraph continues] (Lenormant and Chevallier, "Ancient History of the East," vol. ii., p. 228.)

This would show that the first Phœnician came long after this line of the kings or gods, and that he was a foreigner, as compared with them; and, therefore, that it could not have been the Phœnicians proper who made the several inventions narrated by Sanchoniathon, but some other race, from whom the Phœnicians might have been descended.

And in the delivery of their records to the foreigner Osiris, the god of Egypt, we have another evidence that Egypt derived her civilization from Atlantis.

Max Müller says:

"The Semitic languages also are all varieties of one form of speech. Though we do not know that primitive language from which the Semitic dialects diverged, yet we know that at one time such language must have existed. . . . We cannot derive Hebrew from Sanscrit, or Sanscrit from Hebrew; but we can well understand bow both may have proceeded from one common source. They are both channels supplied from one river, and they carry, though not always on the surface, floating materials of language which challenge comparison, and have already yielded satisfactory results to careful analyzers." ("Outlines of Philosophy of History," vol. i., p. 475.)

There was an ancient tradition among the Persians that the Phœnicians migrated from the shores of the Erythræan Sea, and this has been supposed to mean the Persian Gulf; but there was a very old city of Erythia, in utter ruin in the time of Strabo, which was built in some ancient age, long before the founding of Gades, near the site of that town, on the Atlantic coast of Spain. May not this town of Erythia have given its name to the adjacent sea? And this may have been the starting-point of the Phœnicians in their European migrations. It would even appear that there was an island of Erythea. In the Greek mythology the tenth labor of Hercules consisted in driving away the cattle of Geryon, who lived in the island of Erythea, "an island somewhere in the remote west, beyond the 

p. 311

[paragraph continues] Pillars of Hercules." (Murray's "Mythology," p. 257.) Hercules stole the cattle from this remote oceanic island, and, returning drove them "through Iberia, Gaul, over the Alps, and through Italy." (Ibid.) It is probable that a people emigrating from the Erythræan Sea, that is, from the Atlantic, first gave their name to a town on the coast of Spain, and at a later date to the Persian Gulf--as we have seen the name of York carried from England to the banks of the Hudson, and then to the Arctic Circle.

The builders of the Central American cities are reported to have been a bearded race. The Phœnicians, in common with the Indians, practised human sacrifices to a great extent; they worshipped fire and water, adopted the names of the animals whose skins they wore--that is to say, they had the totemic system--telegraphed by means of fires, poisoned their arrows, offered peace before beginning battle, and used drums. (Bancroft's "Native Races," vol. v., p. 77.)

The extent of country covered by the commerce of the Phœnicians represents to some degree the area of the old Atlantean Empire. Their colonies and trading-posts extended east and west from the shores of the Black Sea, through the Mediterranean to the west coast of Africa and of Spain, and around to Ireland and England; while from north to south they ranged from the Baltic to the Persian Gulf. They touched every point where civilization in later ages made its appearance. Strabo estimated that they had three hundred cities along the west coast of Africa. When Columbus sailed to discover a new world, or re-discover an old one, he took his departure from a Phœnician seaport, founded by that great race two thousand five hundred years previously. This Atlantean sailor, with his Phœnician features, sailing from an Atlantean port, simply re-opened the path of commerce and colonization which had been closed when Plato's island sunk in the sea. And it is a curious fact that Columbus had the antediluvian world in his mind's eye even then, for when he reached the mouth of

p. 312

the Orinoco he thought it was the river Gihon, that flowed out of Paradise, and he wrote home to Spain, "There are here great indications suggesting the proximity of the earthly Paradise, for not only does it correspond in mathematical position with the opinions of the holy and learned theologians, but all other signs concur to make it probable."

Sanchoniathon claims that the learning of Egypt, Greece, and Judæa was derived from the Phœnicians. It would appear probable that, while other races represent the conquests or colonizations of Atlantis, the Phœnicians succeeded to their arts, sciences, and especially their commercial supremacy; and hence the close resemblances which we have found to exist between the Hebrews, a branch of the Phœnician stock, and the people of America.

Upon the Syrian sea the people live
Who style themselves Phœnicians. . . .
These were the first great founders of the world--
Founders of cities and of mighty states--
Who showed a path through seas before unknown.
In the first ages, when the sons of men
Knew not which way to turn them, they assigned
To each his first department; they bestowed
Of land a portion and of sea a lot,
And sent each wandering tribe far off to share
A different soil and climate. Hence arose
The great diversity, so plainly seen,
'Mid nations widely severed.

Dyonysius of Susiana, A.D. 3,