Wednesday, 28 January 2015


Officials had previously said he tested positive for traces of polonium-210.

However, his friend Paolo Guzzanti told the BBC that doctors had told Mr Scaramella he was going to die.

Mr Scaramella was one of the last people to meet Mr Litvinenko, a Russian former spy, before his death last month, which is being linked to the discovery of polonium-210.

Mr Litvinenko's wife Marina is also said to have been "very slightly contaminated" but is not ill.

The polonium trail:  - Key locations

The trail of radioactive contamination following the murder of former Russian agent Alexander Litvinenko in November 2006 has taken detectives all over London, as well as to locations in Hamburg and Moscow.

Here are the key sites that have formed the major part of the investigation, where radioactive substances have been found. 

  • University College Hospital: Where Mr Litvinenko died on 23 November - cleared for public use
  • 1 Cavendish Place: Remediation work completed - cleared for public use
  • 25 and 58 Grosvenor Street: 25 - cleared for public use, 58 - cleared for public use
  • Best Western Hotel: Rooms isolated for remediation work - cleared for public use
  • Millennium Hotel: Where Mr Litvinenko met associates shortly before he became ill - cleared after work
  • Pescatori restaurant: Cleared for public use
  • Itsu sushi bar: Where Mr Litvinenko dined - remediation work completed - cleared
  • 7 Down Street: Part of office isolated - cleared for public use
  • Sheraton Park Lane Hotel: One room cleared after remediation work; other awaiting formal clearance
  • Parkes Hotel: Remediation work carried out - cleared for public use
  • Hey Jo/Abracadabra: Contamination found on cushions and seating at this lap-dancing bar - cleared
  • Dar Marrakesh restaurant: Contaminated shisha pipe handle and cushion cover removed - cleared
  • Barnet Hospital: Where Mr Litvinenko was first taken after being taken ill - cleared for public use
  • 140 Osier Crescent: Litvinenko's home - sealed off for contamination survey and subsequently cleared
  • Litvinenko's Mercedes car: High levels of contamination found and reduced to safe levels
  • Emirates Stadium: Arsenal ground visited by ex-KGB man who stayed at Millennium Hotel - cleared
  • Royal London Hospital: Scene of Mr Litvinenko's post-mortem examination - cleared for public use Other locations: 
  • Ashdown Park Hotel, E Sussex: Where an associate is thought to have stayed - cleared for public use
  • Heathrow airport: Traces of radioactive material found on three aircraft; given all-clear in Dec 2006
  • Lambeth - Mercedes taxi: Bag of waste removed and taxi cleaned - declared safe
  • Moscow: Traces on a Finnish plane and at British Embassy - since cleared
  • Hamburg: Flat of the ex-wife of Litvinenko contact Dmitry Kovtun and his mother-in-law's home *Remediation work involves sealing or removing contaminated material, reducing activity to "safe" levels.
    Source: HPA/Westminster City Council/Haringey Council/CAA/BA 
  • --END--

    Published: 2006/12/02 13:18:47 GMT

    Spyfinder Scaramella in spotlight
    Italian Mario Scaramella, 36, has been a significant figure in an Italian espionage probe.
    He has advised the Italian Senate's Guzzanti committee, examining claims by Soviet defector Alexander Mitrokhin about KGB operations in the country.
    As consultant to the committee the former environmentalist came into contact with Mr Litvinenko.
    The pair would exchange information about Soviet-era activities in Italy.
    Mr Litvinenko would also pass on information about what he thought his former spying colleagues were up to nowadays in Western Europe.
    Mr Scaramella headed a body called the Environmental Crime Prevention Programme (ECPP), an organisation which tracked dumped nuclear waste, including Soviet nuclear missiles left over from the Cold War.
    Between 2000 and 2002, Mr Scaramella was secretary general of that body.
    Sensational tales
    In 2003 he made the unusual move from environmentalist to KGB expert for the Guzzanti committee's probe into post-World War II Soviet spying in Italy.
    Many of his claims have been headline grabbing - including one in March 2005 when he said 20 Soviet nuclear warheads had been dumped by a USSR submarine in the Bay of Naples during the Cold War.
    And last year he tipped off Italian police after saying he had been offered a suitcase of nuclear material for sale by a Ukrainian national.

    “ The Scaramella file resembles a story from a spy novel ” 
    BBC security correspondent Frank Gardner
    At the time Mr Scaramella said he was investigating the activities of former KGB officers in the tiny Adriatic coast republic of San Marino.
    He said he had been passed a document saying there were former KGB men in San Marino looking at selling nuclear military material. A garage in Rimini was raided and four men arrested.
    He also said a tip-off from Mr Litvinenko helped prevent a potential attempt on the life of Paolo Guzzanti, a member of Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia party who is heading the probe into the Mitrokhin material.
    The BBC's security expert Frank Gardner said: "The Scaramella file resembles a story from a spy novel.
    "He is a 'self-styled' security expert - a change from being an environmentalist. He has been specialising in investigating the Russian intelligence service in Italy."
    The Italian government has officially denied that Mr Scaramella works for Italy's secret service SISMI. 

    Tuesday, 27 January 2015

    Beyond Perfidy - The Real Holocaust Denial That Ridicules History and Regards Suffering as Legal Tender

    Russia, like most invited nations, is sending a lower-ranked official and will be represented by the Kremlin's chief of staff, Sergei Ivanov.

    This unusual diplomacy deteriorated into a public spat when a Polish radio station asked the country's foreign minister, Grzegorz Schetyna whether it was petty not to invite Mr Putin.

    He decided to answer by crediting the Ukrainians for liberating Auschwitz, rather than the Soviet Union's Red Army.

    'Anti-Russia hysteria'

    Moscow was incensed, saying it was time to stop "ridiculing history" and engaging in "anti-Russia hysteria". Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Mr Schetyna's comments were "blasphemous and cynical". 

    He pointed out Auschwitz was liberated by a Red Army consisting of Russians, Ukrainians, Chechens, Georgians and Tatars.

    Auschwitz was liberated by the Red Army's First Ukrainian Front, which certainly included both Ukrainians and Russians. Maj Anatoly Shapiro, a Ukrainian Jew, led the battalion that fought its way into the camp. 

    On Friday Mr Schetyna insisted he was right because, as he said, it was "obvious" that a multi-ethnic Red Army liberated Auschwitz, but it had in fact been a Ukrainian officer, Igor Pobirchenko, whose tank was the first to break through the camp's gates.

    Through their virtual disinvitation, EU countries are preventing the Russian president from participating at the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. The highest representative of the country, whose army had halted the mass murder in the German extermination camp January 27, 1945, is thereby excluded from the commemoration ceremonies. However, Germany’s president, will participate. Joachim Gauck had already used his speech on the 75th anniversary of Germany’s invasion of Poland, to massively stir up sentiments against Moscow and to transform the commemoration of Nazi crimes into an appeal for closing ranks against Russia. In his memoirs, Gauck described Red Army soldiers, who had liberated Germany, as beings “with Asian facial features,” “reeking of Vodka,” who “requisitioned and stole.” A few years ago, he complained, “the occurrence of the German Judeocide has been inflated to a uniqueness,” because “certain milieus of post religious societies” were seeking “a certain shudder in face of the unspeakable.” In 2010, he was quoted saying, he “wonders how much longer we Germans want to nurture our culture of chagrin.”

    “Just Like Nazi Troops”

    The commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of the German Auschwitz extermination camp had been the focus of political intrigues already last year. At the commemoration of the 60th anniversary of its liberation, Russian President Vladimir Putin’s participation was still taken for granted. After having suffered severe losses, the Soviet Army reached Auschwitz January 27, 1945, putting an end to the ghastly murders Germans were committing. 

    First attempts to exclude Putin from the commemoration of the 70th Anniversary were made in Poland in the summer 2014. A parliamentarian was quoted saying that the Red Army “had been an aggressor” in WW II, “just like Nazi troops,” which is why the Russian President should only be allowed to make a “penitential pilgrimage” to Poland.[1] At the time, Bronisław Komorowski could see nothing wrong with Putin’s participation at the Auschwitz commemoration. However, anti-Russian forces have prevailed and the Russian President’s invitation was cancelled through diplomatic channels. According to reports, Poland’s Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz has also campaigned to prevent Putin from participating at a parallel commemoration ceremony in Prague. This would exclude the president of the country, whose army had lost more than a million soldiers just to liberate the German Reich and the Polish territories under German occupation.

    Turned against Russia

    The anti-Russian instrumentalization of the memory of German crimes against humanity is making headway with Putin’s virtual disinvitation. Already on September 1, 2014, German President Joachim Gauck used his memorial address in Gdansk — commemorating the 75th Anniversary of the German invasion of Poland — to stir up anti-Russian sentiments. Referring to the Ukraine conflict, Gauck accused Russia of giving a higher priority to “a quest for power,” rather than to “maintaining stability and peace.” Completely blotting out western support for the Ukrainian putsch and the civil war, while ignoring all the wars waged by the West from Yugoslavia to Iraq on up to Libya, Gauck alleged that Russia had “violated international law” and “annexed foreign territory.“[2] Alluding to Great Britain and France’s approbation for Germany’s occupation of parts of Czechoslovakia in October 1938, targeting Russia, Gauck declared, “history teaches us that territorial concessions often whet the appetite of the aggressors.” The commemoration of Nazi crimes was thereby transformed into an appeal to close ranks against Russia, which Germany had invaded.

    A “Culture of Chagrin”

    On various occasions before becoming president, Gauck, who, unlike Russia’s President Putin, will be present at Auschwitz January 27, had made public statements showing how he views Germany’s 1945 liberation and the Shoah. In his memoires, he wrote on the subject of Germany’s liberation, that it arrived as “horrible news,” he depicted the Red Army soldiers as beings “with Asian facial features,” reeking “of vodka,” who “requisitioned and stole” and systematically raped women.[3] 2006, Gauck remorsefully claimed that there is “a tendency toward sanctifying the Holocaust,” wherein “the occurrence of German Judeocide is inflated to a uniqueness that ultimately escapes comprehension and analysis.” “Certain milieus of post-religious societies” were persistently searching “for the dimension of the absolute, a certain shudder in face of the unspeakable.” This could also be achieved by “the absolute evil” and is “paradoxically of psychological advantage.“[4] Gauck has stated several times that “the Germans” would be well advised to change their approach to history. In the fall of 2010, he mused, “I ask myself, how much longer do we Germans want to nurture our culture of chagrin.“[5] This was after he had positively responded to the question whether “the majority of the Germans” are mature enough for a “reorientation toward their own victims, the reorientation toward the patriotic.” “That’s how I see it.“[6]

    Broad Brush

    Until he was inaugurated president, Gauck’s historical views were criticized in German public opinion, For example, he has a knack for using the “broad brush,” in reference to his remarks on the “Black Book of Communism.“[7] Gauck had written that “the communists had also made themselves unpopular, when they ... approved Poland’s westward acquisition of territory and thereby Germany’s loss of its eastern territories.” “To both the natives and the expellees, this loss of the homeland was considered a great injustice, which the communists sealed in 1950, by recognizing the Oder-Neisse as the new German-Polish border,“[8] alleges Gauck. In the conflict over the “Centre against Expulsions,” he took the side of the president at the time, Erika Steinbach, who was sharply criticized for her historical revisionist statements, particularly in Poland. Gauck is quoted on the German League of Expellees’ (BdV) website saying, Berlin is most certainly the best location for a “Centre against Expulsions.” It blends in, because Berlin is where “there are various ‘topographies of terror,’ the location of the Wannsee Conference and the Stasi Headquarters, the former seat of government of brown and red despots.“[9]

    Yatsenyuk’s “Soviet Invasion”

    Gauck’s Auschwitz speech and Putin’s disinvitation coincide with Berlin’s open cooperation with the fascist successors of Nazi collaborators to stage a pro-western coup in Kiev. ( reported.[10]) The Kiev government has adopted their anti-Russian standpoints, which are also increasingly having an influence on the German debate where they dovetail with old anti-Russian sentiments. Arseniy Yatsenyuk recently caused a stir with his interview on German television. He literally alleged, “We all remember well the Soviet invasion of Ukraine and Germany.“[11] This statement has remained unchallenged.

    [1] Streit in Polen über Einladung Putins zu Auschwitz-Gedenken 2015. 09.05.2014.
    [2] Gedenkfeier zum deutschen Überfall auf Polen 1939. 01.09.2014.
    [3] Joachim Gauck: Winter im Sommer, Frühling im Herbst. München 2009. See Hans-Rüdiger Minow: Der Zug der Erinnerung, die Deutsche Bahn und der Kampf gegen das Vergessen.
    [4] Joachim Gauck: Welche Erinnerungen braucht Europa? See The Consensus President.
    [5] “Mutige Politiker ziehe ich vor”. 30.09.2010.
    [6] Gauck: Erinnerung an Vertreibung leugnet nicht den Nazi-Terror. 31.08.2006.
    [7] Daniela Dahn: Gespalten statt versöhnt. 10.06.2010.
    [8] Stéphane Courtois et al.: Das Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus. Unterdrückung, Verbrechen und Terror. München 1998.
    [10] See Vom Stigma befreit

    Desperate Liberal Vote-wrangling on Holocaust Memorial Day

    Name Five, Nick.

    Monday, 26 January 2015


    If you owe the bank £1000, they own your ass.

    If you owe the bank £500 Billion - their ass is yours...

    And "SYRIZA" is Greek for "E.U. Reap What You Sow"

    ORGANISE - You are called-upon to aspire and work towards The Good...

    "...if Greece falls and is removed from the eurozone - the eurozone will collapse. We said from the beginning the eurozone is in danger, the euro is in danger, but it isn't in danger from Syriza... it is in danger from the very policies of austerity"

    - Euclid Tsakalotos, SYRIZA

    "Greece must have assistance if it is to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy. "

    - President Harry S.Truman,

    European Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker has reminded him of the need to "ensure fiscal responsibility".

    Congratulating Mr Tsipras on his election win, Mr Juncker said in a tweet: "The European Commission stands ready to continue assisting Greece in achieving these goals." He also referred to "promoting sustainable jobs and growth".

    However Jeroen Dijsselbloem, president of the Eurogroup, said on Monday: "There is very little support for a write-off in Europe."

    Speaking after a meeting of eurozone finance ministers in Brussels, he said members should "abide by the rules and commitments".

    Meanwhile the German government said that Greece's new leadership should take measures to ensure the economic recovery continues.

    "A part of that is Greece holding to its prior commitments and that the new government be tied in to the reform's achievements," government spokesman Steffan Seibert said.

    A List of Demands :

    1. Audit of the public debt and renegotiation of interest due and suspension of payments until the economy has revived and growth and employment return.

    2. Demand the European Union to change the role of the European Central Bank so that it finances states and programs of public investment.

    3. Raise income tax to 75% for all incomes over 500,000 euros.

    4. Change the election laws to a proportional system.

    5. Increase taxes on big companies to that of the European average.

    6. Adoption of a tax on financial transactions and a special tax on luxury goods.

    7. Prohibition of speculative financial derivatives.

    8. Abolition of financial privileges for the Church and shipbuilding industry.

    9. Combat the banks' secret [measures] and the flight of capital abroad.

    10. Cut drastically military expenditures.

    11. Raise minimum salary to the pre-cut level, 750 euros per month.

    12. Use buildings of the government, banks and the Church for the homeless.

    13. Open dining rooms in public schools to offer free breakfast and lunch to children.

    14. Free health benefits to the unemployed, homeless and those with low salaries.

    15. Subvention up to 30% of mortgage payments for poor families who cannot meet payments.

    16. Increase of subsidies for the unemployed. Increase social protection for one-parent families, the aged, disabled, and families with no income.

    17. Fiscal reductions for goods of primary necessity.

    18. Nationalisation of banks.

    19. Nationalisation of ex-public (service & utilities) companies in strategic sectors for the growth of the country (railroads, airports, mail, water).

    20. Preference for renewable energy and defence of the environment.

    21. Equal salaries for men and women.

    22. Limitation of precarious hiring and support for contracts for indeterminate time.

    23. Extension of the protection of labour and salaries of part-time workers.

    24. Recovery of collective (labour) contracts.

    25. Increase inspections of labour and requirements for companies making bids for public contracts.

    26. Constitutional reforms to guarantee separation of church and state and protection of the right to education, health care and the environment.

    27. Referendums on treaties and other accords with Europe.

    28. Abolition of privileges for parliamentary deputies. Removal of special juridical protection for ministers and permission for the courts to proceed against members of the government.

    29. Demilitarisation of the Coast Guard and anti-insurrectional special troops. Prohibition for police to wear masks or use fire arms during demonstrations. Change training courses for police so as to underline social themes such as immigration, drugs and social factors.

    30. Guarantee human rights in immigrant detention centres.

    31. Facilitate the reunion of immigrant families.

    32. Depenalisation of consumption of drugs in favor of battle against drug traffic. Increase funding for drug rehab centres.

    33. Regulate the right of conscientious objection in draft laws.

    34. Increase funding for public health up to the average European level.(The European average is 6% of GDP; in Greece 3%.)

    35. Elimination of payments by citizens for national health services.

    36. Nationalisation of private hospitals. Elimination of private participation in the national health system.

    37. Withdrawal of Greek troops from Afghanistan and the Balkans. No Greek soldiers beyond our own borders.

    38. Abolition of military cooperation with Israel. Support for creation of a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders.

    39. Negotiation of a stable accord with Turkey.

    40. Closure of all foreign bases in Greece and withdrawal from NATO.

    The Truman Doctrine


    MARCH 12, 1947

    "Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Congress of the United States:

    The gravity of the situation which confronts the world today necessitates my appearance before a joint session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this country are involved.

    One aspect of the present situation, which I wish to present to you at this time for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey.

    The United States has received from the Greek Government an urgent appeal for financial and economic assistance. Preliminary reports from the American Economic Mission now in Greece and reports from the American Ambassador in Greece corroborate the statement of the Greek Government that assistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nation.

    I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal of the Greek Government.

    Greece is not a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard to make both ends meet. Since 1940, this industrious and peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy occupation, and bitter internal strife.

    When forces of liberation entered Greece they found that the retreating Germans had destroyed virtually all the railways, roads, port facilities, communications, and merchant marine. More than a thousand villages had been burned. Eighty-five per cent of the children were tubercular. Livestock, poultry, and draft animals had almost disappeared. Inflation had wiped out practically all savings.

    As a result of these tragic conditions, a militant minority, exploiting human want and misery, was able to create political chaos which, until now, has made economic recovery impossible.

    Greece is today without funds to finance the importation of those goods which are essential to bare subsistence. Under these circumstances the people of Greece cannot make progress in solving their problems of reconstruction. Greece is in desperate need of financial and economic assistance to enable it to resume purchases of food, clothing, fuel and seeds. These are indispensable for the subsistence of its people and are obtainable only from abroad. Greece must have help to import the goods necessary to restore internal order and security, so essential for economic and political recovery.

    The Greek Government has also asked for the assistance of experienced American administrators, economists and technicians to insure that the financial and other aid given to Greece shall be used effectively in creating a stable and self-sustaining economy and in improving its public administration.

    The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by Communists, who defy the government's authority at a number of points, particularly along the northern boundaries. A Commission appointed by the United Nations security Council is at present investigating disturbed conditions in northern Greece and alleged border violations along the frontier between Greece on the one hand and Albania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia on the other.

    Meanwhile, the Greek Government is unable to cope with the situation. The Greek army is small and poorly equipped. It needs supplies and equipment if it is to restore the authority of the government throughout Greek territory. Greece must have assistance if it is to become a self-supporting and self-respecting democracy.

    The United States must supply that assistance. We have already extended to Greece certain types of relief and economic aid but these are inadequate.

    There is no other country to which democratic Greece can turn.

    No other nation is willing and able to provide the necessary support for a democratic Greek government.

    The British Government, which has been helping Greece, can give no further financial or economic aid after March 31. Great Britain finds itself under the necessity of reducing or liquidating its commitments in several parts of the world, including Greece.

    We have considered how the United Nations might assist in this crisis. But the situation is an urgent one requiring immediate action and the United Nations and its related organizations are not in a position to extend help of the kind that is required.

    It is important to note that the Greek Government has asked for our aid in utilizing effectively the financial and other assistance we may give to Greece, and in improving its public administration. It is of the utmost importance that we supervise the use of any funds made available to Greece; in such a manner that each dollar spent will count toward making Greece self-supporting, and will help to build an economy in which a healthy democracy can flourish.

    No government is perfect. One of the chief virtues of a democracy, however, is that its defects are always visible and under democratic processes can be pointed out and corrected. The Government of Greece is not perfect. Nevertheless it represents eighty-five per cent of the members of the Greek Parliament who were chosen in an election last year. Foreign observers, including 692 Americans, considered this election to be a fair expression of the views of the Greek people.

    The Greek Government has been operating in an atmosphere of chaos and extremism. It has made mistakes. The extension of aid by this country does not mean that the United States condones everything that the Greek Government has done or will do. We have condemned in the past, and we condemn now, extremist measures of the right or the left. We have in the past advised tolerance, and we advise tolerance now.

    Greece's neighbor, Turkey, also deserves our attention.

    The future of Turkey as an independent and economically sound state is clearly no less important to the freedom-loving peoples of the world than the future of Greece. The circumstances in which Turkey finds itself today are considerably different from those of Greece. Turkey has been spared the disasters that have beset Greece. And during the war, the United States and Great Britain furnished Turkey with material aid.

    Nevertheless, Turkey now needs our support.

    Since the war Turkey has sought financial assistance from Great Britain and the United States for the purpose of effecting that modernization necessary for the maintenance of its national integrity.

    That integrity is essential to the preservation of order in the Middle East.

    The British government has informed us that, owing to its own difficulties can no longer extend financial or economic aid to Turkey.

    As in the case of Greece, if Turkey is to have the assistance it needs, the United States must supply it. We are the only country able to provide that help.

    I am fully aware of the broad implications involved if the United States extends assistance to Greece and Turkey, and I shall discuss these implications with you at this time.

    One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations.

    To ensure the peaceful development of nations, free from coercion, the United States has taken a leading part in establishing the United Nations, The United Nations is designed to make possible lasting freedom and independence for all its members. We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States.

    The peoples of a number of countries of the world have recently had totalitarian regimes forced upon them against their will. The Government of the United States has made frequent protests against coercion and intimidation, in violation of the Yalta agreement, in Poland, Rumania, and Bulgaria. I must also state that in a number of other countries there have been similar developments.

    At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one.

    One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression.

    The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio; fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.

    I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.

    I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.

    I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.

    The world is not static, and the status quo is not sacred. But we cannot allow changes in the status quo in violation of the Charter of the United Nations by such methods as coercion, or by such subterfuges as political infiltration. In helping free and independent nations to maintain their freedom, the United States will be giving effect to the principles of the Charter of the United Nations.

    It is necessary only to glance at a map to realize that the survival and integrity of the Greek nation are of grave importance in a much wider situation. If Greece should fall under the control of an armed minority, the effect upon its neighbor, Turkey, would be immediate and serious. Confusion and disorder might well spread throughout the entire Middle East.

    Moreover, the disappearance of Greece as an independent state would have a profound effect upon those countries in Europe whose peoples are struggling against great difficulties to maintain their freedoms and their independence while they repair the damages of war.

    It would be an unspeakable tragedy if these countries, which have struggled so long against overwhelming odds, should lose that victory for which they sacrificed so much. Collapse of free institutions and loss of independence would be disastrous not only for them but for the world. Discouragement and possibly failure would quickly be the lot of neighboring peoples striving to maintain their freedom and independence.

    Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East.

    We must take immediate and resolute action.

    I therefore ask the Congress to provide authority for assistance to Greece and Turkey in the amount of $400,000,000 for the period ending June 30, 1948. In requesting these funds, I have taken into consideration the maximum amount of relief assistance which would be furnished to Greece out of the $350,000,000 which I recently requested that the Congress authorize for the prevention of starvation and suffering in countries devastated by the war.

    In addition to funds, I ask the Congress to authorize the detail of American civilian and military personnel to Greece and Turkey, at the request of those countries, to assist in the tasks of reconstruction, and for the purpose of supervising the use of such financial and material assistance as may be furnished. I recommend that authority also be provided for the instruction and training of selected Greek and Turkish personnel.

    Finally, I ask that the Congress provide authority which will permit the speediest and most effective use, in terms of needed commodities, supplies, and equipment, of such funds as may be authorized.

    If further funds, or further authority, should be needed for purposes indicated in this message, I shall not hesitate to bring the situation before the Congress. On this subject the Executive and Legislative branches of the Government must work together.

    This is a serious course upon which we embark.

    I would not recommend it except that the alternative is much more serious. The United States contributed $341,000,000,000 toward winning World War II. This is an investment in world freedom and world peace.

    The assistance that I am recommending for Greece and Turkey amounts to little more than 1 tenth of 1 per cent of this investment. It is only common sense that we should safeguard this investment and make sure that it was not in vain.

    The seeds of totalitarian regimes are nurtured by misery and want. They spread and grow in the evil soil of poverty and strife. They reach their full growth when the hope of a people for a better life has died. We must keep that hope alive.

    The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms.

    If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world -- and we shall surely endanger the welfare of our own nation.

    Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.

    I am confident that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.